Kazakhstan Corruption is rampant throughout the country’s political circles, and networks of patronage and clientelism negatively affect the country’s business environment. Furthermore, challenging bureaucracy and vague legislation restrict foreign investment. Navigating the public administration is also challenging for businesses, as petty corruption is endemic. Facilitation payments and bribery are illegal in the public and the private sector according to the country’s Criminal Code, but the state bodies that are responsible for combating corruption are ineffective, unreliable, and fail to hold high-level officials responsible for corruption, abuses of office, and conflicts of interest. A weak judicial system further compromises Kazakhstan’s otherwise extensive legal framework for dealing with corruption.
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